The Social, Political, and Religious Values of Tolerance in School Textbooks of Kurdistan Region of Iraq

(History Textbooks as a Sample)

  • Beshkosh Jaafar Abdullah Department of Special Education, College of Basic Education, University of Duhok, Kurdistan Region of Iraq
الكلمات المفتاحية: Kurdistan Region of Iraq, History textbooks, Tolerance, Basic School


This study aims to find out the political, social, and religious values of tolerance in school textbooks, specifically in history textbooks for the seventh, eighth, and ninth grades in Kurdistan Region. The research question is: what are the political, social and religious values of tolerance in the school textbooks for basic education? The methodology used to answer this question is, content analysis by taking paragraphs as well as direct and indirect concepts as units of analysis. The tool of the research is a list of values made by the researcher herself and by getting benefit from the literature review. The results showed that not all the values listed were present in the three textbooks and that these values were distributed randomly without considering their exigency.


1. Afdal, G. (2004), Tolerance and Curriculum: Conceptions on Tolerance in the Multicultural Unitary Norwegian Compulsory school (Unpublished Thesis), the Norwegian Lutheran School of Theology, Oslo.
2. Agbaria, A., Mustafa, M.& Jabareen, Y. T. (2015). "In your face" Democracy: Education for Belongingness and its Challenges in Israel, British Educational Research Journal, Vol.14, No.1. p.p 143-175. DOI: 10.1002/berj.3133.
3. Banks, J. A. (2004). Democratic Citizenship Education in Multicultural Societies. In Banks, J. A. (Eds). Diversity and Citizenship Education: Global Perspectives. (pp: 3-15). San Francesco: Jossey-Bass A Wiley Imprint.
4. Commisso, A. // UNESCO (2004). Textbook Program in Education in Crisis: a Case Study in Iraq.
5. EP-Nuffic, Internationalization of Education (2015). Education System Iraq: The Iraqi Education System described and compared with the Dutch system.
6. Godwin, K., Ausbrooks, C. & Martinez, V. (2002). Teaching Tolerance in Public and Private School. In Schultz, F. (Eds.), Annual Editions: Education (pp 140-145). Guilford:McGrow-Hill/Dushkin.
7. Gutman, A. (2004). Unity and Diversity in Democratic Multicultural Education: Creative and Destructive Tensions. In Banks, J. A. (Eds). Diversity and Citizenship Education: Global Perspectives(pp:71-96). San Francesco: Jossey-Bass A Wiley Imprint.
8. Horton, E. (2009). Teaching both Bias and Tolerance: The Israeli- Palestinian conflict in Israeli-Palestinian curricula, The Monitor, Spring 2009, Vol.14, Issue 2, p.p 8-16.
9. Khadir, F. R. (2012). The Malaysian Experience in Developing National Identity, Multicultural Tolerance and Understanding Through Teaching Curricula: Lessons Learned and Possible Applications in The Jordanian Context, International Journal of Humanities and Social Science, Vol.2, No. 1; January 2012, pp. 270-288. From
10. Khush Bakht, H., Muhammad, A., Rahman, F. & Jumani N. B. (2001). State of Citizenship Education: A Case Study from Pakistan, International Journal of Humanities and Social Science, Vol.1, No.2 . p.p. 37-43. From
11. Kurdistan Regional Government, Ministry of Planning (2013), Kurdistan Region of Iraq 2020; A vision for the Future.
12. Li Cai, B. A. (2003). Assessing Co- Termination in The Unitizing Phrase of Content Analysis: A Multi-Response Randomized Blocks Permutation Approach. (unpublished thesis). The Ohio State University, Columbus.
13. Mc Millan, J. J. and Schumacher, S. (2001). Research in Education; A conceptual Introduction. City: New York. Adison Wesley Longman, Inc.
14. Miller, K. J. & Sessions M. M. (2005). Infusing Tolerance, Diversity and Social Personal Curriculum into Inclusive Social Studies Classes Using Family Portraits and contextual Teaching and Learning, TEACHING Exceptional Children Plus, Vol.1, Issue.3, January 2005.
15. Olatubosun, A. A. & Tanimowo, A. S. (2013). Islamic Studies in Nigeria, Problems and Prospects, International Journal of Humanities and Social science, Vol.3, No. 2. p.p. 179-186. From
16. Osler, A. & Yahya, Ch. (2013). Challenges and Complexity in Human Rights Education: Teachers' Understandings of Democratic Participation and Gender Equity in Post-conflict Kurdistan-Iraq, Education Inquiry, Vol. 4, No.1, pp.189-210.
17. Sharif, T. A. (2013). Importing Educational Services from Finland to Kurdistan (Unpublished Thesis), International Business, HAAG-HELLIA, University of Applied Science.
18. Teff-Seker, Y. (2012). Peace, Tolerance and the Palestinians "other" in Israeli Textbooks. IMPACT-SE Institute of Monitoring Peace and Cultural Tolerance in School Education,
19. UNESCO (2003). Situation Analyses of Education in Iraq 2003. April. Paris. UNESCO.

20. UNESCO (2010-2014). UNESCO National Education Support Strategy; Republic of Iraq, UNESCO Iraq Office. (compressed).
21. UNESCO (2011). World Data on Education: Iraq. 7th edition. 2010/11.Geneva.
22. UNESCO & Ministry of Education–Iraq (2012). Iraqi Curriculum Framework. UNESCO- Iraq-Office.,
23. Vernez, G., Culbertson, Sh. & Constant, L., RAND Corporation (2014), Strategic Priorities from Improving Access to Quality Education Kurdistan Region –Iraq.
24. Weber, R. Ph. (1990). Basic Content Analysis; Series: Quantitative Application in the Social Sciences. 2nd Edition, London. Sage Publications.
25. World Bank Group (2015). The Kurdistan Region of Iraq: Assessing The Economic and Social Impact of the Syrian Conflict and ISIS. Washington DC: World Bank.doi:101569/978-1-4648-0548-6. License: Creative Common Attribution CC By 3. oIGO
كيفية الاقتباس
Beshkosh Jaafar Abdullah. (2022). The Social, Political, and Religious Values of Tolerance in School Textbooks of Kurdistan Region of Iraq: (History Textbooks as a Sample). المجلة الدولية للعلوم الإنسانية والاجتماعية, (35), 152-166.