Role of Graphic Art in Reducing Terrorism and Extremisms in the World: A Case study for Visual Art of Contemporary Iraq

  • Shayma Haleem Naji College of Engineering -Al- Muthanna University, Al-Muthanna- Iraq
الكلمات المفتاحية: Graphic art, motivated, terrorist, extremist, visual art, contemporary Iraq


Graphic art’s origin can be found since early origin of human being, when the primitive existence in the caves and forests and used cave wall to make fetish either to seek protection or as a means of prayer to God or to express their feelings and emotions over there, where they ware residing. Terrorism has become one of the most threatening scourges of societies. Iraqi artist also used the graphic arts as a weapon in its struggle as well as in national emergencies in past as posters and advertisement motivating and provoking interest of audience during their disunity in their regime. For the case study, contemporary Iraqi artworks were identified for the period (2015-2020) and (5) works were selected to cover the society of study. Results showed that the contemporary Iraqi artist cleared the echo of the dangerous phenomenon of terrorism, oppression, violence and the dispossession of rights (samples 1, 2 and 4). The contemporary Iraqi artist represented the situation realistically until his visual works became clear as if they were clearly telling realistic stories (samples 3 and 5). It had now become the most powerful weapon to alter the existing concept of public at a mass scale and has deep effect on mentality of people. This can also be used to reinforce the brain of terrorist and extremist, with a motivational ideas and a sympathetic approach to bring back them towards the mainstream of nation.


[1] ABS-CBN NEWS. 2016. What to do in case of an explosion. [Online]. [Accessed 12 February 2018]. Available from: life/09/07/16/what-to-do-in-case-of-an-explosion
[2] Arguel, A. and Jamet, E., 2009. Using video and static pictures to improve learning of procedural contents. Computers in Human Behavior, 25(2), 354-359.
[3] Arslan, D. and Toy, E. 2015. The visual problems of infographics. Global Journal on Humanities & Social Sciences, 1, 409-414.
[4] Baglama, B., Yucesoy, Y., Uzunboylu, H. and Ozcan, D. 2017. Can Infographics facilitate the learning of individuals with mathematical learning difficulties? International Journal of Cognitive Research in Science, Engineering and Education, 5(2), 119-128.
[5] Baer, K. 2010. Information design workbook: Graphic approaches, solutions, and inspiration + 30 case studies. Beverly, Massachusetts: Rockport.
[6] Bailey, N.M. and Van Harken, E.M. 2014. Visual images as tools of teacher inquiry. Journal of Teacher Education, 65(3), 241-260.
[7] Bateman, J.A. 2014. Text and image: A critical introduction to the visual/verbal divide. London: Routledge.
[8] Bellato, N. 2013. Infographics: A visual link to learning. eLearn. [Online]. December. [Accessed 28 May 2017]. Available from: https://
[9] Bergin, A. and Murphy, C. 2015. Sounding the alarm: Terrorism threat communications with the Australian public. [Online]. [Accessed October 2018]. Available from: https://s3-ap-southeast-2. GOEkhLyRMLN7noQxzV6Cdjiif
[10] Berney, S. and Bétrancourt, M., 2016. Does animation enhance learning? A meta-analysis. Computers & Education, 101, 150-167.
[11] Bateman, S., Mandryk, R. L., Gutwin, C., Genest, A., McDine, D. and Brooks, C. 2010. Useful junk? The effects of visual embellishment on comprehension and memorability of charts. Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, 25732582. ACM.
[12] Bevan, N., Carter, J., Earthy, J., Geis, T. and Harker, S., 2016. New ISO standards for usability, usability reports and usability measures. International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction, 268278. Springer, Cham.
[13] Bonnardel, N., Piolat, A., Ludovic, L.B. 2011. The impact of colour on Website appeal and users’ cognitive processes. Displays, 32(2), pp.69-80.
[14] Brady, T., Konkle, T., Alvarez, G., Oliva, A. 2008. Visual long-term memory has a massive storage capacity for object details. PNAS. [Online]. 105 (38), 14325-14329. [Accessed 7 March 2018]. Available from:
[15] Bringhurst, R. 1992. The elements of typographic style. Vancouver: Hartley & Marks.
[16] Bursi-Amba, A., Gaullier, A. and Santidrian, M. 2016. Infographics: A toolbox for technical writers? Paris: Diderot University.
[17] Carter, R., S. Maxa, M. Sanders, P.B. Meggs, and B. Day. 2018. Typographic design, form and communication (7th ed). New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons.
[18] Cific, T. 2016. Effects of infographics on students achievement and attitude towards geography lessons. Journal of Education and Learning, 5(1), 154-166.
[19] Coates, K. and Ellison, A. 2014. An Introduction to information design. London: Laurence King Publishing.
[20] Conley, K.J. 2017. Color theory in technical communication. Channels: Where Disciplines Meet, 2:1, 1-11.
[21] Coyle, C.L., Malek, M., Mayse, C., Patil, V. and Shell, S. 2017. Data can be beautiful: Crafting a compelling story with SAS® Visual Analytics. SAS Global Forum.
[22] Cyr, D., Head, M. Larios, H. 2010. Colour appeal in website design within and across cultures: A multi-method evaluation. International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 68(1-2), 1-21.
[23] Few, S. 2004. Common mistakes in data presentation. Perceptual Edge, September 18.
[24] Few, S. 2012. Show me the numbers. Analytics Press, Burlingane, CA.
[25] Field, A. 2009. The ‘New Terrorism’: Revolution or Evolution? Political Studies Review, 7(2), 195–207
[26] Finke, T., Manger, S. and Fichtel, S. 2012. Informotion: Animated infographics. Prestel Pub.
[27] Freeman, D.H. 2017. The Moving Image Workshop: Introducing animation, motion graphics and visual effects in 45 practical projects. UK/USA: Bloomsbury Publishing.
[28] Garett, R., Chiu, J., Zhang, L. and Young, S.D., 2016. A literature review: Website design and user engagement. Online Journal of Communication and Media Technologies, 6(3), 1.
[29] Gouvernement France. 2018. How to react in the event of a terrorist attack? [Online]. [Accessed 9 February 2018]. Available from: how-to-react-in-the-event-of-a-terrorist-attack
[30] GOV UK. 2017. Government design principles. [Online]. [Accessed 1 March 2018]. Available from: government-design-principles
[31] GOV UK. 2017. Stay Safe Film. [Online]. [Accessed 1 March 2018]. Available from: stay-safe-film
[32] Higgins, A. and Freytas-Tamura, K. 2016. In Brussels Bombing Plot, a Trail of Dots Not Connected. The New York Times, 26th March.
[33] Höffler, T.N. and Leutner, D., 2007. Instructional animation versus static pictures: A meta-analysis. Learning and instruction, 17(6), 722-738.
[34] ISO – The International Organization for Standardization. 2013. ISO/TS 20282-2:2013(en). Usability of consumer products and products for public use — Part 2: Summative test method. [Online]. [Accessed 9 February 2018]. Available from: ui/#iso:std:iso:ts:20282:-2:ed-2:v1:en
[35] Krum, R. 2013. Cool infographics: Effective communication with data visualization and design.Hoboken, N.J: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
[36] Landa, R. 2016. Advertising by design: Generating and designing creative ideas across media. New Jersey USA: John Wiley & Sons.
[37] Lankow, J. 2012. Infographics: The power of visual storytelling. Canada: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.Le, T., Reeder, B., Thompson, H. and Demiris, G. 2013. Health providers’ perceptions of novel approaches to visualizing integrated health information. Methods of Information in Medicine, 52, 250-258.
كيفية الاقتباس
Shayma Haleem Naji. (2021). Role of Graphic Art in Reducing Terrorism and Extremisms in the World: A Case study for Visual Art of Contemporary Iraq. المجلة الدولية للعلوم الإنسانية والاجتماعية, (24), 312-325.